The Revolutionary Technology behind BasicBites®

The revolutionary technology behind BasicBites® is the culmination of decades of research by the Department of Oral Biology and Pathology at Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine. Their internationally recognized scientists have extensively investigated the biochemistry and physiology of mixed bacterial communities in dental plaque and how they interact with saliva in supporting oral health.

How do BasicBites work?

BasicBites coat teeth with vital nutrients also found in healthy saliva, arginine bicarbonate and calcium carbonate, which mimic nature’s way of supporting enamel health. BasicBites are coordinated to help protect teeth in several ways.

It’s well known that certain bacteria living on tooth surfaces feed on sugars from the diet and produce acids that can damage teeth. Decades of research investigating the oral microbiome led to the discovery of beneficial pH-raising bacteria living alongside these harmful bacteria. These good bacteria favor and convert arginine, a common amino acid found in healthy saliva and in BasicBites, into alkali or base. This results in immediate and sustained generation of buffers on tooth surfaces, which can help neutralize and counteract plaque acids, keeping teeth in a healthy pH (acid/base) balance.

Like healthy saliva, BasicBites also contains the tooth protecting mineral calcium and bicarbonate. In a normal and favorable oral pH environment, calcium can be reabsorbed into the teeth – a process called remineralization. Bicarbonate helps provide additional buffering and supports the benefits of arginine and calcium.

Following are the human clinical trials and other scientific studies that have led to and continue to advance the development of the nutrient-based technology in BasicBites.

BasicBites has been clinically shown to help maintain enamel health in children:

A One Year Double Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Study to Assess Progression of Non-cavitated Occlusal Caries Lesions in First Permanent Molars of Children using a Sugarless BasicBites® soft chew confection. Clinical abstract – view here.

Want to know more about BasicBites?

BasicBites breakthrough technology has been extensively researched in human clinical trials:

Acevedo AM, Machedo C, Rivera LE, Wolff M, Kleinberg I.
The inhibitory effect of an arginine bicarbonate/calcium carbonate containing dentifrice on the development of dental caries in Venezuelan school children.
Journal of Clinical Dentistry. 2005;16:63-70

Acevedo AM, Montero M, Rojas-Sanchez F, Machado C, Rivera LE, Wolff M, and Kleinberg I.
Clinical evaluation of the ability of arginine bicarbonate/calcium carbonate complex in a mint confection to inhibit the development of dental caries in children.
J Clin Dent. 2008;19(1):1-8.

Schiff T, Delgado E, Zhang YP, Cummins D, DeVizio W, Mateo LR.
Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of an in-office desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate in providing instant and lasting relief of dentin hypersensitivity.
Am J Dent. 2009 Mar;22 Spec No A:8A-15A.

Ayad F1, Ayad N, Zhang YP, DeVizio W, Cummins D, Mateo LR.
Comparing the efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride to a commercial sensitive toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion: an eight-week clinical study on Canadian adults.
J Clin Dent. 2009;20(1):10-6.

Schiff T, Mateo LR, Delgado E, Cummins D, Zhang YP, DeVizio W.
Clinical efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of a dentifrice containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride compared to a dentifrice containing 8% strontium acetate and 1040 ppm fluoride under consumer usage conditions before and after switch-over.
J Clin Dent. 2011;22(4):128-38.

Kraivaphan P, Amornchat C, Triratana T, Mateo LR, Ellwood R, Cummins D, DeVizio W, Zhang YP.
Two-year caries clinical study of the efficacy of novel dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and 1450ppm fluoride.
Caries Res. 2013;47(6):582-90. doi: 10.1159/000353183. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Yin W1, Hu DY, Fan X, Feng Y, Zhang YP, Cummins D, Mateo LR, Pretty IA, Ellwood RP.
A clinical investigation using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) of the anticaries efficacy of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate.
J Clin Dent. 2013;24 Spec no A:A15-22.

Yin W1, Hu DY, Li X, Fan X, Zhang YP, Pretty IA, Mateo LR, Cummins D, Ellwood RP.
The anti-caries efficacy of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate assessed using Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF).
J Dent. 2013 Aug;41 Suppl 2:S22-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2010.04.004.

Srisilapanan P1, Korwanich N, Yin W, Chuensuwonkul C, Mateo LR, Zhang YP, Cummins D, Ellwood RP.
Comparison of the efficacy of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride to a dentifrice containing 1450 ppm fluoride alone in the management of early coronal caries as assessed using Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence.
J Dent. 2013 Aug;41 Suppl 2:S29-34. doi: 10.1016/j. jdent.2010.04.005.

Hu DY1, Yin W, Li X, Feng Y, Zhang YP, Cummins D, Mateo LR, Ellwood RP.
A clinical investigation of the efficacy of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride, as sodium monofluorophosphate in a calcium base, on primary root caries.
J Clin Dent. 2013;24 Spec no A:A23-31.

Souza MLR, Cury JA, Tenuta LMA, Zhang YP, Mateo LR, Cummins D, et al.
Comparing the efficacy of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride to a dentifrice containing fluoride alone in the management of primary root caries.
Journal of Dentistry. 2013;41S:35-41

Cantore R, Petrou I, Lavender S, Santarpia P, Liu Z, Gittins E, Vandeven M, Cummins D, Sullivan R, Utgikar N.
In situ clinical effects of new dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine and fluoride on enamel de- and remineralization and plaque metabolism.
J Clin Dent. 2013; 24 Spec no A:A32-44.

Wolff M, Corby P, Klaczany G, Santarpia P, Lavender S, Gittins E, Vandeven M, Cummins D, Sullivan RJ.
In vivo effects of a new dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride on plaque metabolism.
Clin Dent. 2013;24 Spec no A:A45-54.

Wolff M, Corby P, Klaczany G, Santarpia P, Lavender S, Gittins E, Vandeven M, Cummins D, Sullivan RJ.
In vivo effects of a new dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride on plaque metabolism.
Clin Dent. 2013;24 Spec no A:A45-54.

Santarpia RP III, PHD, Lavender S, PHD, Gittens E, BS, Vandeven M, PHD, Cummins D, PHD, Sullivan R, PHD.
A 12-week clinical study assessing the clinical effects on plaque metabolism of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1,450 ppm fluoride.
American Journal of Dentistry, Vol. 27, No, 2, Apr 2014

Li X, Zhong Y, Jiang X, Hu Deyu, Mateo LR, Morrison BM Jr, Zhang YP.
Randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1450 ppm fluoride over two years.
J Clin Dent. 2015;26(1):7-12.

Additional Supporting Scientific Data:

Kleinberg I, Jenkins G.
The pH of plaques in the different areas of the mouth before and after meals and their relationship to the pH and flow of resting saliva.
Archs Oral Biol. 1964;9:493-516.

Kleinberg I, Kanapka J, Chatterjee R, et al.
Metabolism of nitrogen by the oral mixed bacteria.
In: Kleinberg I, Ellison S, Mandel I, eds. Saliva and Dental Caries. New York: Information Retrieval; 1979:357-377.

Kanapka J, Kleinberg I.
Catabolism of arginine by the mixed bacteria in human salivary sediment under conditions of low and high glucose concentration.
Archs Oral Biol. 1983;28:1007-1015.

Wijeyeweera R, Kleinberg I.
Acid-base pH curves in vitro with mixtures of pure cultures of human oral microorganisms.
Archs Oral Biol. 1989;34:55-64.

van Wuyckhuyse B, Perinpanayagam H, Bevacqua D, et al.
Association of free arginine and lysine concentrations in human parotid saliva with caries experience.
J Dent Res. 1995;74:686-690.

Burne RA1, Marquis RE.
Alkali production by oral bacteria and protection against dental caries.
FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000 Dec 1;193(1):1-6.

Kleinberg I.
A mixed-bacteria ecological approach to understanding the role of oral bacteria in dental caries causation: an alternative to streptococcus mutans and the specific plaque hypothesis.
Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 2002;13(2):108-25.

Chatterjee R, Kleinberg I.
Bacterial acidification and Cavistat alkalinization of occlusal fissure pH. CD-ROM of Abstracts.
J. Dent. Res., Special Issue A., 84: 3264, 2005.

Petrou I, Heu R, Stranick M, Lavender S, Zaidel L, Cummins D, Sullivan RJ, Hsueh C, Gimzewski JK.
A breakthrough therapy for dentin hypersensitivity: how dental products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate work to deliver effective relief of sensitive teeth.
J ClinDent. 2009;20(1):23-31.

M.M. Nascimento,1,* Y. Liu,2 R. Kalra,2 S. Perry,3 A. Adewumi,4 X. Xu,5 R.E. Primosch,4 and R.A. Burne2.
Oral Arginine Metabolism May Decrease the Risk for Dental Caries in Children.
J Dent Res. 2013 Jul; 92(7): 604–608.

Nascimento MM, Browngardt C, Xiaohui X, Klepac-Ceraj V, Paster BJ, Burne RA.
The effect of arginine on oral biofilm communities. Mol Oral Microbiol.
2014 Feb;29(1):45-54. doi: 10.1111/omi.12044. Epub 2013 Dec 2.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121835. eCollection 2015.

Marcelle Nascimento, Robert Burne.
Caries Prevention by Arginine Metabolism in Oral Biofilms: Translating Science into Clinical Success.
Current Oral Health Reports March 2014, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 79-85.

Reyes E, Martin J, Moncada G, Neira M, Palma P, Gordan V, Oyarzo JF, Yevenes I.
Caries-free subjects have high levels of urease and arginine deiminase activity.
J Appl Oral Sci. 2014 Jun;22(3):235-40.

Sharma S, Lavender S, Woo J, Guo L, Shi W, Kilpatrick-Liverman L, Gimzewski JK.
Nanoscale characterization of effect of L-arginine on Streptococcus mutans biofilm adhesion by atomic force microscopy.
Microbiology. 2014 Jul;160(Pt 7):1466-73. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.075267-0. Epub 2014 Apr 24.

Sullivan R, Rege A, Corby P, Klaczany G, Allen K, Hershkowitz D, Goldder B, Wolff M.
Evaluation of a dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and sodium monofluorophosphate to repair acid-softened enamel using an intra-oral remineralization model.
J Clin Dent. 2014;25(1 Spec No A):A14-9.

Koopman JE, Röling WF, Buijs MJ, Sissons CH, ten Cate JM, Keijser BJ, Crielaard W, Zaura E.
Stability and resilience of oral microcosms toward acidification and Candida outgrowth by arginine supplementation.
Microb Ecol. 2015 Feb;69(2):422-33. doi: 10.1007/s00248-014-0535-x. Epub 2014 Nov 30.

Huang X, Schulte RM, Burne RA, Nascimento MM.
Characterization of the arginolytic microflora provides insights into pH homeostasis in human oral biofilms.
Caries Research: 2015;49(2):165-76. doi: 10.1159/000365296. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

Zheng X, Cheng X, Wang L, Qiu W, Wang S, Zhou Y, Li M, Li Y, Cheng L, Li J, Zhou X, Xu X.
Combinatorial effects of arginine and fluoride on oral bacteria.
J Dent Res. 2015 Feb;94(2):344-53. doi: 10.1177/0022034514561259. Epub 2014 Dec 4.

Kolderman E, Bettampadi D, Samarian D, Dowd SE, Foxman B, Jakubovics NS, Rickard AH.
L-arginine destabilizes oral multi-species biofilm communities developed in human saliva.
PLoS One. 2015 May 6;10(5):e0121835. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121835. eCollection 2015.

He J1, Hwang G2, Liu Y2, Gao L2, Kilpatrick-Liverman L3, Santarpia P3, Zhou X4, Koo H5.
l-Arginine Modifies the Exopolysaccharide Matrix and Thwarts Streptococcus mutans Outgrowth within Mixed-Species Oral Biofilms.
J Bacteriol. 2016 Sep 9;198(19):2651-61. doi: 10.1128/JB.00021-16. Print 2016 Oct 1.

Koopman JE1, Hoogenkamp MA1, Buijs MJ1, Brandt BW1, Keijser BJ2, Crielaard W1, Ten Cate JM1, Zaura E3.
Changes in the oral ecosystem induced by the use of 8% arginine toothpaste.
Arch Oral Biol. 2017 Jan;73:79-87. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.09.008. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

M. Agnello, L. Cen, N.C. Tran, W. Shi, J.S. McLean, and X. He.
Arginine Improves pH Homeostasis via Metabolism and Microbiome Modulation.
J Dent Res. 2017 Jul; 96(8): 924–930.

Ruth G. Ledder, Hitesh Mistry, Prem K. Sreenivasan, Gavin Humphreys, Andrew J. McBaina.
Arginine Exposure Decreases Acidogenesis in Long-Term Oral Biofilm Microcosms.
mSphere. 2017 Aug 23;2(4):e00295-17.

M M Nascimento.
Potential Uses of Arginine in Dentistry.
M M Nascimento Adv Dent Res.2018 Feb;29(1):98-103.

Dr. AntarikshyaPrabir Das, Dr. Swadheena Patro, Dr. Ankita Mohanty, Dr Sanjay Miglani.
A Broad Review On Arginine And Its Application In Dentistry.
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine ISSN 2515-8260 Volume 08, Issue 2, 2021.

Yudong Liu, Shanshan Liu, Qinghui Zhi, Peilin Zhuang, Rongxiu Zhang, Zhenzhen Zhang, Kai Zhang, and Yu Sun.
Arginine-induced metabolomic perturbation in Streptococcus mutans.
J Oral Microbiol. 2022; 14(1): 2015166.